Fab4D: An Accessible Hybrid Approach for Programmable Shaping and Shape Changing Artifacts
Himani Deshpande, Clement Zheng, Courtney Starrett, Jinsil Hwaryoung Seo, Jeeeun Kim
4D printing is a new technique for human-computer interaction to create self bending and actuating interfaces, leveraging the properties of 3D printed materials for shape change over time, triggered by external factors such as heat. Given the ubiquity of low-cost 3D printers, we see an opportunity to translate 4D printing from the research lab into makerspaces and educational settings. In this work, we explore low cost 4D printing with shape memory polymers and desktop 3D printers, tackling hybrid fabrication approach to lower the barrier for non-experts. 
We see heat as one promising way of creating shape changing behaviors using common triggering methods such as oven, hair dryer, hot water.
We present the initial design space for hybrid fabrication with factors that help characterize and control bending behaviors, showcasing potential design contexts with 4D printed applications.